This section should include a full description of the references cited in your report. You must refer to all the sources of information that you used in your report. Failure to do so is called plagiarism and it is a serious offence that will result in rejection of your laboratory report or worse (quite possibly expulsion from Acadia). All of the sources (i.e. books, journal articles, magazine articles, websites, etc.) in the reference list must be cited in the paper and vice versa. You can neither cite nor reference a work that you have not read yourself.
Place references in alphabetical order, and if the same authors are referenced more than once, place these authors in chronological order. There are several ways to present references (see Course Specific Instructions on the last page) but the following is generally used by biologists. Most importantly, be consistent!
- The second line of the reference is indented.
- This can be accomplished with the ‘hanging indent’ paragraph formatting feature in Word.
- The title of an article/book is not underlined,Only the first letter of the first word in the title is capitalized except for species or other proper names.
- Only the author’s last name and initials are used, not the author’s first name.
- Use single space paragraph formatting only.
- When listing the same author(s) more than once with the same year, list the first as “a”, 2nd as “b”, and so on, and include the letter in the citation in the body of the paper:
Citing Sources (References) within the Text
Within the text of your report, all statements of fact or opinion must be paraphrased and supported by a reference to their source. Copying from any source is a form of cheating (even if you reference the copied material) and will result in a mark of zero. This includes copying from another student/report. In the latter instance, both parties are held accountable.
The reference must be cited as (Author’s last name, Year). This has the advantage of letting your reader know something about the authority and how recent your information is without flipping to the end of the report while reading. The most effective way to learn how to cite properly is through examples.
Always acknowledge the source of “quotations” with author, date and pg # .
Example: This is known as the “Amazon effect” (Smith, 1980, p.24).
Author’s last name (could be just the website name if no distinct author exists), the date of the article OR, if no distinct article date exists, the date you visited the site. The site URL need only be included in the References list.
Example: Unit definitions were compiled from health data (Rowlett, 2001) and technical aspects follow those of the Heart Foundation (Heart Foundation, 2005). [In this case, Rowlett was the author of an article found on the Heart Foundation website that was published in 2001, whereas, the Heart Foundation website contained the technical aspects and had no distinct author or date.]
- The period is placed after the closing parentheses (i.e., at the end of the sentence) since the citation is considered part of the sentence.
- Only the last names of the authors are used (no first names or initials).
- The citation does not need to be at the end of the sentence, depending on how the sentence is phrased. In the above examples, the citations are placed directly after the idea or phrase associated with that author.
- et al. is found only in citations within the text, not in the reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list must contain the names of all authors.
- For multiple references, [e.g. (Fiveash, 1974; Hunt et al., 1984; Heywood, 1985)], the citations are in chronological order, and each is separated by a semicolon.